Gentoo - compiled from source
A lot of administrators of Linux systems say that “are Linuxes and is Gentoo”. It is said that if you can configure Gentoo then you will manage other Linux systems. Name Gentoo comes from name of the white-eyebrow penguin. The most important in Gentoo are: configurability, improve portability and an optimization for user equipment. It is possible because Gentoo is installed by Portage mechanism. Portage is a Python management software installation system. It is base on BSD idea. It is the main tool for Gentoo which differentiates it from other distributions. User can run Portage via emerge program. In contrast to the usual package repositories it is not kept as binary applications. Only information needed to compile their code independent of the source, if it is available (ebuilds). Ebuild is an alternative for precompiled software packages. It is a text file that describes how to download, configure, compile source program in a manner optimized for the machine and how to install this software on your system. The official ebuilds are on the Gentoo mirrors. New ebuilds can be obtained by synchronizing local Portage tree from the repository through the rsync protocol. This is done with the command emerge --sync. These flags are used by Portage system to determine which software options will be activated during its compilation. Gentoo is possible to create prebuilt software packages. In addition to developing the distribution developers gathered around the Gentoo address a number of other projects aimed at specific applications of the operating system. The main sources are the kernel gentoo-sources. Modifications include mainly fixes for minor bugs. Users can also take advantage of the prepared nuclei for specific applications. You can install Gentoo in many ways. The most popular is to use specially adapted Gentoo Live CD. Gentoo has several types of installation CDs. Installation process requires internet access, because Portage system has to download the necessary files from the web. From version 2006.0 Gentoo can be downloaded with the graphical installer CD. You can install Gentoo sytem starting with one of the selected starting points (called stages). Stage1 offers the highest level of configuration flexibility. User can optimize system but installation process is very difficult and long, because user must perform bootstrap. Stage 3 installation is the shortest and Stage 2 is the compromise. Also, the kernel must be independently set and compiled. LiveCD installer allows you to use already compiled kernel, however it is not recommended solution. The entire system configuration must be done by itself. User needs to set the fstab file, runs the service and choose necessary kernel modules. The most popular distro based on Gentoo is Sabayon.